The Design in the Protein
The complex design of
the haemoglobin molecule
Let us now put aside the question
of "how the first cell originated" and
ask a much easier question: How did the first
protein originate? The theory of evolution has
no answer to this question either.
THE ARCHITECTURE IN
Besides having a sophisticated design,
proteins are also involved in a great
design in the body. The human body is
mainly composed of proteins. Proteins
are the basic material of our bones, eyes,
hair or muscles. Here, you see the complex
interior structure of a single fibre in
one of our muscles. Cells with different
protein make-ups form each of the details
you see in this structure. Every detail
is perfectly designed and built by the
use of an organic material, which is protein.
The fascinating architecture of proteins
is one of the striking signs of creation.
Proteins are the building blocks
of the cell. If we compare the cell to a huge
skyscraper, proteins are the bricks of the skyscraper.
However, they do not have a standard form and
structure as the bricks do. Even the simplest
cells have roughly 2,000 different types of proteins.
If cells can survive, it is thanks to the extraordinarily
harmonious functioning of these distinct proteins.
Proteins are made up of smaller structures,
or molecules, called "amino acids",
which are formed by the different combinations
made by carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. There
are 500-1,000 amino acids in an average protein.
Some proteins are much bigger.
The important point is that amino
acids have to line up in a certain sequence to
form a protein. There are 20 different amino acid
types used in living organisms. These amino acids
do not combine at random to form proteins. Every
protein has a certain amino acid sequence and
this sequence must be precisely matched. Even
the deficiency or the replacement of a single
amino acid renders that protein a useless lump
of molecules. For thi s reason, every amino acid
must be just at the right place in the right sequence.
The instructions for this sequence are stored
in the DNA of the cell and, according to them,
the proteins are produced.
The theory of evolution claims that
the first proteins formed "by chance".
Probabilistic calculations, however, show that
this is by no means possible. For instance, the
probability of the amino acid sequence of a protein
made up of 500 amino acids being in the correct
order is 1 in 10950.5
10950 is an incomprehensible figure formed by
placing 950 zeros after 1. In mathematics, a probability
smaller than 1 over 1050 is considered to be almost
MONKEYS WRITE A BOOK?
Cytochrome-C is one of the most important
proteins that make oxygen respiration
possible. It is vital for survival. It
is impossible for this protein, which
has an extremely complex design, to form
by chance. One of the foremost defenders
of evolution in Turkey, Professor Ali
Demirsoy states in his book Inheritance
and Evolution that the probability of
the coincidental formation of Cytochrome-C
is "as unlikely as the possibility of
a monkey writing the history of humanity
on a typewriter without making any mistakes."8
Briefly, even a single protein cannot
form by chance. Evolutionists also admit this
fact from time to time. For instance, Harold Blum,
a famous evolutionist scientist, states that "the
spontaneous formation of a polypeptide of the
size of the smallest known proteins seems beyond
So, what does all this mean? Perry
Reeves, a professor of chemistry, gives the answer:
When one examines the vast number
of possible structures that could result from
a simple random combination of amino acids in
an evaporating primordial pond, it is mind-boggling
to believe that life could have originated in
this way. It is more plausible that a Great Builder
with a master plan would be required for such